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    管網改革將落地 油氣產業迎變局
    作者:佚名 來源:經濟參考報 時間:2019-6-4 10:46:26 點擊數:(0)0

    兒童節前一天,油氣管網設施公平開放迎來了新的監管辦法,這是今年油氣管網運營機制改革落地的一個前奏,隨著后續國家油氣管網公司的成立,整個產業將迎來大變局。

    值得注意的是,全國“一張網”建設提速的同時,諸多挑戰待解決。在近日的城市燃氣儲氣調峰設施建設與運營研討會(下稱“研討會”)上,業內人士認為應考慮油氣管網運營機制的變化,從準入、價格等多方面統籌研究儲氣調峰等基礎設施商業運營模式。

    油氣管網改革加速落地

    按照油氣體制改革任務要求,國家發改委等四部門聯合印發了《油氣管網設施公平開放監管辦法》,明確國家鼓勵和支持各類資本參與投資建設納入統一規劃的油氣管網設施,提升油氣供應保障能力;鼓勵和支持油氣管網設施互聯互通和公平接入,逐步實現油氣資源在不同管網設施間的靈活調配;油氣管網設施運營企業應當對輸送、儲存、氣化、裝卸、轉運等運營業務實行獨立核算,并按照國家有關規定推進油氣管網設施獨立運營,實現和其他油氣業務的分離。

    今年3月19日,中央全面深化改革委員會第七次會議正式審議通過了《石油天然氣管網運營機制改革實施意見》,強調推動石油天然氣管網運營機制改革,要堅持深化市場化改革、擴大高水平開放,組建國有資本控股、投資主體多元化的石油天然氣管網公司,推動形成上游油氣資源多主體多渠道供應、中間統一管網高效集輸、下游銷售市場充分競爭的油氣市場體系,提高油氣資源配置效率,保障油氣安全穩定供應。

    據了解,一直以來油氣領域基礎設施的建設、運營主要集中于少數大型央企。截至2018年底,國內三大石油公司共有油氣主干管道9.6萬公里,中石油、中石化、中海油分別占63%、31%、6%。同時,全國省級干線管網2.5萬公里,三大石油公司與其他主體各占50%。此外,我國累計建成LNG接收站20座,地下儲氣庫26座中屬于社會資源投資的僅港華金壇儲氣庫一座。

    “油氣改革的關鍵點是運銷分離,從根本上解決了壟斷的動機問題。”新奧能源貿易集團國內貿易群副總經理高光在研討會上表示,和電網不同,國家油氣管網公司不買賣氣,唯一收入來源是管輸費用,運得越多、管輸費就越多。

    中國石化天然氣分公司副總經理謝丹也認為,中國天然氣市場最重要的是供應商太少,國家油氣管網公司的成立有助于促使更多供應商出現,只有這樣才能真正實現市場化改革。

    中國城市燃氣協會理事長劉賀明指出,當前國家石油天然氣管網公司即將成立,對城市配置成本進行監管,城市燃氣行業面臨著機遇,也面臨著挑戰。

    諸多挑戰待解決

    近年來中國天然氣發展迅速,2018年消費總量達到2803億立方米,其中城鎮燃氣消費量占比達到50%。而且,進口量也越來越大,對外依存度已攀升至45%。綜合國內外多家咨詢機構研究結論,預計2020年我國天然氣需求量達到3300億方,2025年增至4500億方,2030年增至5500億方。

    “天然氣發展過程中也存在著一些不足,管道、儲氣設施建設還是短板,互聯互通程度不夠,上中下游缺乏統籌等問題,完備的儲氣設施、調峰體系建設及順暢的運作必不可少。”劉賀明稱。

    數據顯示,2018年中國儲氣庫的有效工作氣量為93億立方米,僅占天然氣消費總量的3.5%,遠低于世界12%的平均水平。而我國天然氣管道密度僅為美國的1/6、法國的1/10、德國的1/15。

    在此之下,近兩年國家出臺了一系列的政策,對基礎設施建設和儲氣調峰提出了具體的要求和安排。中國石油天然氣管道工程有限公司副總經理王學軍介紹說,作為解決近期氣荒的有效途徑,在去年基礎上國家發改委今年又下達了89項重點天然氣基礎設施互聯互通工程建設任務,其中41項是需要在2019年投產,23項在2020年建成。全國“一張網”的天然氣儲運格局正在形成,現在全力推進的互聯互通工程建設與將來國家管網公司的成立是高度融合的。

    根據2018年4月國家發改委、國家能源局出臺的《關于加快儲氣設施建設和完善儲氣調峰輔助服務市場機制的意見》,到2020年,供氣企業擁有不低于其年合同銷售量10%的儲氣能力;縣級以上地方人民政府至少形成不低于保障本行政區域日均3天需求量的儲氣能力;城鎮燃氣企業形成不低于其年用氣量5%的儲氣能力。

    中國城市燃氣協會理事長助理遲國敬在研討會上認為,在目前條件下,無論是供氣企業,還是地方政府和城鎮燃氣企業,要完成國家制定的2020年儲氣目標將面臨巨大挑戰。

    中國燃氣、港華燃氣、長春燃氣等多家燃氣公司負責人也表示,儲氣庫項目需要合適的地質構造,選址困難,建設難度大,項目投資巨大、建設周期長,但真正意義上的市場化儲氣價格尚未形成,導致效益低,企業面臨投資熱情受到極大沖擊。

    統籌研究商業運營模式

    王學軍認為,需要與國家油氣管網公司成立以及運營機制的研究相結合,統籌考慮互聯互通工程以及儲氣調峰設施建設和運行模式、建設標準、費用分擔、運價定價、收益分成、計量方式等問題。

    據港華燃氣高級副總裁朱健穎介紹,今年金壇儲氣庫儲氣量將達到1.6億立方米,冬季供氣能力將達到8000萬立方米左右。目前除了內部的互聯互通,正在研究依托國家管網,推進區域性的互聯互通,實現“長三通”的構想。此外,探索多種商業化經營模式,包括開展進口LNG、儲氣空間租賃等業務,同時正在攜手上海石油天然氣交易中心,積極研究儲氣庫標準化產品,力爭早日投放到市場,實現商業利益最大化。

    謝丹坦言,油氣管網改革對國內三大石油公司肯定影響很大,但“我們也在做一些調整,比如經營儲氣庫、接收站都是未來轉型的方向。”中石化正在研究探討以儲氣庫為試點,通過上海石油天然氣交易中心將儲氣庫富余容量進行交易,以市場化手段實現儲氣庫的獨立商業運作。他認為,目前我國儲氣庫大都與管道資產捆綁經營,因此儲氣庫獨立的商業運作是解決目前我國儲氣調峰能力不足的關鍵。

    【責任編輯:路麗莎

    關鍵字:油氣資源 地下儲氣庫 互聯互通

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